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Prospective and Adoptive Parents
Gay and Lesbian Adoptive Parents: Resources for Professionals and Parents

Life After Adoption

Explaining sexuality to children

All families at one time or another will have "the" discussion on sexuality. For gay and lesbian families this can be an even more sensitive subject. However, a healthy family, regardless of sexual orientation, shares the same core values - love and respect, commitment and understanding. It is especially important when talking with children to stress what these values mean to the family and to recognize that there are many different cultures, communities and families around the world.

The Family Pride Coalition, a national advocacy and support organization, offers several suggestions for parents discussing sexuality with their children:22

  • Be honest about your own identity and comfort level.
  • If you are uncomfortable, let your children know you find this hard to talk about, but that you feel it is important for families to talk about difficult things.
  • Listen closely to your child and when possible, let your children take the lead. Let them ask questions. Take cues about their level of understanding from the questions they ask and interact at that level.
  • Be as clear as you can be about your own feelings connected to sexuality, coming out, privacy, and family values.
  • Consider your child's age and how much information they need.

Getting support

Once an adoption is completed, the business of family life begins. Like all adoptive parents, gay men and lesbians are seeking ways to incorporate their children into their lives and to help them make a smooth transition. They also want to meet other homosexuals who have taken on the challenge of parenting. There are a growing number of support groups to meet these needs.

Len and Fernando, a multiethnic gay couple who adopted 3-year-old Isabel as a toddler, are members of an active group in the Philadelphia area. "Speaking to the parents of older children gives us ideas of how to cope with issues as they come up. Most of the members are women. We could use a few more men!"

Isabel, who is African-American, has the chance to meet other African-American adopted children and enjoys the many activities planned for families. Their group is part of a larger support network, Philadelphia Family Pride, that serves more than 250 gay and lesbian families in the Delaware Valley. In addition to giving its members a chance to socialize, the group's advocacy and educational projects encourage parents to work with teachers on adoption, race, and alternative family issues that affect their children. Members participate in conferences, receive local and national newsletters, and learn about books and articles for themselves and their children. Older children of gay parents have formed their own network, Colage - Children of Lesbians and Gays Everywhere.

A vital support network of family and friends is important for any family - adoptive, biological, one with heterosexual parents, or one with homosexual parents. Some gay and lesbian adoptive parents have found that even if their parents had a difficult time accepting their homosexuality, the parents readily accept their new role as grandparents. It is almost as if having children makes them more like mainstream families. "Our parents reacted to our desire to parent pretty much the same way they reacted to our coming out," says Tim Fisher, father of two and former Executive Director of the Family Pride Coalition (formerly Gay and Lesbian Parents Coalition International). "They said, 'We love you...but let's not talk about it.' With the kids, they have softened their tone a little. They are grandparents who adore their grandchildren."


The increasing number of gay men and lesbians choosing to adopt has brought the issue of gay and lesbian parenting to the forefront. Social workers are being asked to look carefully at their own feelings and to make reasonable judgments about what is in the best interest of children who need families. And, the increasing number of children needing adoptive families puts pressure on workers to find appropriate families.

The questions linger - should stable, nurturing, mature applicants be turned away on the basis of sexual orientation? What if a substantial number of children face the possibility of never achieving permanency, when they could have been adopted by a gay or lesbian family?

Factsheet revised April 2000.


1 Sullivan, A., (1995). Issues In Gay and Lesbian Adoption: Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Peirce-Warwick Adoption Symposium, Washington, DC: Child Welfare League of America.

2 Editors of the Harvard Law Review. (1990). Sexual Orientation and the Law. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

3 Sullivan, A.

4 Rohrbaugh, J.B. Lesbian Families: Clinical Issues and Theoretical Implications. (1992). Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 23: 467-473.

5 Blommer, S.J. (undated). Answers to Your Questions About Sexual Orientation and Homosexuality: A Fact Sheet. Washington, DC. American Psychological Association.

6 Blommer, S.J.

7 Lesbian and Gay Rights Project - ACLU. (1999). ACLU Fact Sheet - Overview of Lesbian and Gay Parenting, Adoption and Foster Care. New York, NY: American Civil Liberties Union.

8 Carole, J. Are Children at Risk for Sexual Abuse by Homosexuals? (1994). Pediatrics, 94 (1):

9 Huggins, S.L. A Comparative Study of Self-Esteem of Adolescent Children of Divorced Lesbian Mothers and Divorced Heterosexual Mothers. (1989). Journal of Homosexuality, 18 (1/2): 123-135.

10 Adams, W. E. Whose Family Is It Anyway? The Continuing Struggle for Lesbians and Gay Men Seeking to Adopt Children. (1996). New England Law Review, 30 (3): 579-621.

11 Bigner, J. J., Bozett, F. W. 1990. Parenting by Gay Fathers. In: Homosexuality and Family Relations. Bozett, F. W., Sussman, M. B. New York, NY: Haworth Press, Inc.

12 Patterson, C. J. Children of Lesbian and Gay Parents. (1992). Child Development: 1025-1039.

13 Adams, W. E.

14 Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund. (1997). Lesbian and Gay Parenting: A Fact Sheet. New York: NY: Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund.

15 Mishra, D. The Road to Concord: Resolving the Conflict of Law Over Adoption by Gays and Lesbians. (1996). Columbia Journal of Law and Social Problems, 30 (1): 91-136.

16 Patterson, C. J.

17 Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund.

18 Martin, A. (1993). The Lesbian and Gay Parenting Handbook. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers, Inc.

19 Martin, A.

20 Sullivan, A. Policy Issues in Gay and Lesbian Adoption. (1995). Adoption and Fostering, 19 (4): 21-25.

21 Perry, D. Homes of Last Resort. (1993). The Advocate: 46.

22 Cronin, M. E. (1999). Guide to Talking with Your Child About California's Knight Initiative. San Diego, CA: Family Pride Coalition.

This material may be reproduced and distributed without permission; however, appropriate citation must be given to the National Adoption Information Clearinghouse.

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