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Infertility/ Pregnancy Dictionary

Reprinted with permission from the InterNational Council on Infertility Information Dissemination (INCIID), a nonprofit organization committed to providing the most current information regarding the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of infertility and pregnancy loss.

A B C D E F G H I J K L
M N O P R S T U V X Y Z

Abortion
Spontaneous: A pregnancy loss during the first twenty weeks of gestation.
Habitual: When a woman has had three or more miscarriages.
Incomplete: An abortion after which some tissue remains inside the uterus. A D&C must be performed to remove the tissue and prevent complications.
Missed: The fetus dies in the uterus but there is no bleeding or cramping. A D&C will be needed to remove the fetal remains and prevent complications.
Therapeutic: A procedure used to terminate a pregnancy before the fetus can survive on its own.
Threatened: Spotting or bleeding that occurs early in the pregnancy. May progress to spontaneous abortion.

Abruption
The Premature parting of the placenta from the uterine wall. Also called abruptio placentae.

ACTH
A hormone produced by the pituitary gland to stimulate the adrenal glands. Excessive levels may lead to fertility problems.

Active Labor
The normal progress of the birth process, including tightening of the uterus, cervical dilation, and descent of the fetus into the birth canal.

Alpha-Fetoprotein
A plasma protein normally produced by the fetus' liver. The AFP test is offered to almost all pregnant women in the U.S. to assess the risk (not diagnose) of neural tube defects and Down Syndrome.

Adhesion
Scar tissue occurring in the abdominal cavity, fallopian tubes, or inside the uterus. Adhesions can interfere with transport of the egg and implantation of the embryo in the uterus.

Adrenal Androgens
Male hormones produced by the adrenal gland which, when found in excess, may lead to fertility problems in both men and women. Excess androgens in the woman may lead to the formation of male secondary sex characteristics and the suppression of LH and FSH production by the pituitary gland. Elevated levels of androgens may be found in women with polycystic ovaries, or with a tumor in the pituitary gland, adrenal gland, or ovary. May also be associated with excess prolactin levels.

AID(Artificial Insemination Donor) or AIH (Artificial Insemination Homologous/Husband)
See Artificial Insemination, Donor Insemination, Intrauterine Insemination (IUI).

Amenorrhoea
The cessation of the menstrual periods for six months or more at a time. Primary Amenorrhoea afflicts a woman who has never menstruated. Secondary Amenorrhoea afflicts a woman who has menstruated at one time, but who has not had a period for six months or more.

Amniocentesis
Removing a small amount of fluid (amniotic) from the sac surrounding the fetus. Testing the fluid can check for fetal abnormalities, such as Down Syndrome, spina bifida, and Tay-Sachs disease.

Amniotic Fluid
A liquid consisting mostly of water made by the amnion (see amniotic sac) and the fetus. It usually totals 1500 ml at night months. It surrounds the fetus during pregnancy, providing it with protection.

Amniotic Sac
The thin-walled bag that contains the protective liquid, that surrounds the fetus during pregnancy.

Andrologist
A physician-scientist who performs laboratory evaluations of male fertility. May hold a Ph.D. degree instead of an M.D. Usually affiliated with a fertility treatment center working on in vitro fertilization.

Anemia
A condition characterized by an iron deficiency common in pregnancy, in which the number (concentration) of red blood cells in the blood is abnormally low.

Anesthesiologist
A doctor trained in the area of anesthesiology, the branch of medicine that deals with the control of sensations of pain and administering drugs like an epidural to relieve pain.

Anovulation
The failure to ovulate; ovulatory failure.

Anterior
Means in front of, usually with reference to the front part of the body. Often used in association with the term 'anterior presentation' . Usually, babies are born with the back of the head pointed up or slightly to the left or right side. It is as if the child was looking at the floor during emergence from the birth canal. This is the best position in most cases since it allows the child to negotiate more easily the turns required to get through the mother's pelvis and birth canal.

Antibodies
Chemicals made by the body to fight or attack foreign substances entering the body. Normally they prevent infection; however, when they attack the sperm or fetus, they cause infertility Sperm antibodies may be made by either the man or the woman.

Antisperm Antibodies
Antibodies are produced by the immune system to fight off foreign substances, like bacteria. Antisperm antibodies attach themselves to sperm and inhibit movement and their ability to fertilize.

Apgar Score
A test to determine a newborn physical health. It is done 1 minute and 5 minutes after birth. Scoring is based on five factors that refer to how well the infant is able to adjust to life outside the womb. A doctor, Virginia Apgar, MD, created the system to tell quickly which infants require treatment right away or transfer to an intensive care nursery. Ratings are based on Appearance - skin color ; Pulse - the infant's heart rate, Grimace- reflexes, Activity- muscle tone and Respiration- breathing.

Areola
The dark ring of skin around the nipple of the breast. The areola often becomes more prominent during pregnancy.

Artificial Insemination (AI)
Placing sperm into the vagina, uterus or fallopian tubes through artificial means instead of by coitus - usually injected through a catheter or cannula after being washed. This procedure is used for both donor (AID) and husband's (AIH) sperm. This technique is used to overcome sexual performance problems, to circumvent sperm-mucus interaction problems, to maximize the potential for poor semen, and for using donor sperm. See Intrauterine Insemination.

ArtificialSpermatocoele
An artificial, surgically created pouch used to collect sperm from men with irreversible tubal blockage.

Asherman's Syndrome
A condition where the uterine walls adhere to one another. Usually caused by uterine inflammation.

Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)
Several procedures employed to bring about conception without sexual intercourse, including IUI, IVF, GIFT and ZIFT.

Asthenozoospermia
Low sperm motility.

Azozoospermia
Semen containing no sperm, either because the testicles cannot make sperm or because of blockage in the reproductive tract.

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Bags of Water
Another term that refers to the amniotic membranes which contain the amniotic fluid. See amniotic fluid.

Basal Body Temperature (BBT)
Your body temperature when taken at its lowest point, usually in the morning before getting out of bed. Charting BBT is used to predict ovulation. Biphasic: A BBT pattern consistent with ovulation and the formation of the corpus luteum, which secretes progesterone. This hormone will elevate the basal body temperature about one-half degree during the latter half of the menstrual cycle. Monophasic: An anovulatory BBT pattern where the temperature remains relatively constant throughout the cycle.

Beta HCG Test
A blood test used to detect very early pregnancies and to evaluate embryonic development.

Betamethasone
A steroid medication that helps the baby's lungs develop when it appears the woman will deliver prematurely. Not only does betamethasone hasten lung development, but it may also help intestines, kidneys and others systems to mature.

Bicornuate Uterus
A congenital malformation of the uterus where the upper portion (horn) is duplicated.

Bilirubin
The orange-yellow pigment in bile, formed mainly by the breakdown of hemoglobin in red blood cells. It is normally excreted from the body as the main component of bile. See Jaundice.

Birthing Ball
A large rubber ball, designed specifically for use during labor. The woman can lie on top of the ball and rock or sit on the ball and rock or bounce lightly.,

Birthing Center
A medical facility that simulates the homebirth experience.

Bloody Show
A classic indicator of beginning or progressing labor. As the cervix dilates, blood-tinged mucous and the cervical mucous plug pass from the vagina.

Braxton-Hicks Contractions
Periodic contractions of the uterus that do not represent true labor. They happen at random, are typically not painful and they do not dilate the cervix as "real" contractions do. These contractions may begin as early as the first trimester and can become increasingly more frequent and intense toward the end of the third trimester.

Breech Presentation
Birth in which the baby comes out feet, knees or buttocks first. Breech positioning is relatively uncommon, occurring in fewer than five percent of all births.

Brethine (Terbutaline)
A drug sometimes used in pregnancy to slow or stop labor because of its relaxant effect on smooth muscle. The uterus is a smooth muscle.

Bromocriptine (Parlodel)
An oral medication used to reduce prolactin levels and reduce the size of a pituitary tumor when present. This medication often causes dizziness and upset stomach and must be started with a small dose which is gradually increased as needed. This medication is equally effective when the tablet is placed into the vagina.

Buserelin
A long-acting GnRH available in Europe as a nasal spray and used to create the pseudomenopause desirable for reducing the size and number of endometriotic lesions. It can also be used to treat fibroid tumors, PMS, hirsutism, ovulation induction and for in vitro fertilization.

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Candidiasis (Yeast)
An infection that may be uncomfortable and itchy and may impair fertility.

Capacitation
A process that sperm undergo as they travel through the woman's reproductive tract. Capacitation enables the sperm to penetrate the egg.

Catheter 
A small, hollow, flexible tube used to take out or add fluids. Catheters are commonly used in epidurals and when a woman cannot urinate.

CephalopelvicDisproportion (CPD)
The most common reason for doing a cesarean section. A condition in which the baby's head is too large or the mother's birth canal is too small to allow normal labor or birth.

Cerclage
An obstetric method in which stitches are used to hold the lower end of the uterus (cervix closed) to prevent miscarriage. The band is usually removed when the pregnancy goes to full term. This allows labor to begin.

Cervical Stenosis
A blockage of the cervical canal from a congenital defect or from complications of surgical procedures.
See also Cervix.

Cervical Smear
A sample of the cervical mucus examined microscopically to assess the presence of estrogen (ferning) and white blood cells, indicating possible infection.

Cervical Mucus
A viscous fluid plugging the opening of the cervix. Most of the time this thick mucus plug prevents sperm and bacteria from entering the womb. However, at midcycle, under the influence of estrogen, the mucus becomes thin, watery, and stringy to allow sperm to pass into the womb. See also Cervix.

Cervidil
A medication used to induce labor.

Cesarean
A surgical procedure in which the abdomen and uterus are cut open for childbirth.

Cervix
The opening between the uterus and the vagina. The cervical mucus plugs the cervical canal and normally prevents foreign materials from entering the reproductive tract. The cervix remains closed during pregnancy and dilates during labor and delivery to allow the baby to be born.

Cervix, Incompetent
A weakened cervix which opens prematurely during pregnancy and can cause the loss of the fetus. A CERVICAL CERCLAGE is a procedure in which a stitch or two is put around the cervix to prevent its opening until removed when the pregnancy is to term.

Chocolate Cyst
A cyst in the ovary that is filled with old blood; endometrioma. Occurring when endometriosis invades an ovary, it causes the ovary to swell. Frequently, patients with large endometriomas do not have any symptoms. If the cyst ruptures or the ovary containing the cyst twists, emergency surgery may be necessary. Usually treatment can be carried out through the laparoscope.

Cholestasis of Pregnancy
A liver disease that only occurs in pregnancy. Usually the only symptom is itching, particularly on the arms, legs, hands and feet. The itching completely disappears within a week or two of the birth and does not cause long term health problems for mothers . However, it is important that the condition is recognized and treated or it may prove fatal to babies.

Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS)
This procedure tests for genetic genetic disorders, such as sickle cell disease and cystic fibrosis, and chromosomal abnormalities, such as down syndrome. The advantage of this test over amniocentesis is that (CVS) can be done earlier in gestation than the amniocentesis.

Chromosome
The structures in the cell that carry the genetic material (genes); the genetic messengers of inheritance. The human has forty-six chromosomes, twenty-three coming from the egg and twenty-three coming from the sperm.

Cilia
Tiny hairlike projections lining the inside surface of the fallopian tubes. The waving action of these "hairs" sweeps the egg toward the uterus.

Clomiphene Citrate (Clomid, Serophene)
A fertility drug that stimulates ovulation through the release of gonadotropins from the pituitary gland.

Colostrum
The fluid released by the breast during pregnancy before milk production (lactation) begins. It is a thin, yellow fluid that contains white blood cells, water, protein, fat and carbohydrate.

Complete BreechA position of the fetus in the womb in which the baby's buttocks and feet are toward the birth canal. The posture of the fetus is the same as in a normal head-first position, but upside down.

Conception
The beginning of pregnancy. The fusion of the sperm and the egg.

Condom Therapy
Therapy prescribed to reduce the number of sperm antibodies in the woman by using a condom during intercourse for six months or more and by the woman refraining from all skin contact with the husband's sperm. The woman's antibody level may fall to levels that will not adversely affect the sperm.

Cone Biopsy
A surgical procedure used to remove precancerous cells from the cervix. The procedure may damage the cervix and thus disrupt normal mucus production or cause an incompetent cervix, which may open prematurely during pregnancy.

Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
A congenital condition characterized by elevated androgens which suppress the pituitary gland and interfere with spermatogenesis or ovulation. Women may have ambiguous genitalia from the excess production of male hormone.

Contraction
The shortening and tightening of the uterine muscle, working to dilate and efface the cervix and squeeze the baby through the birth canal.

Cord Prolapse
A condition where the umbilical cord falls down below the baby and into the vaginal canal during birth, directly blocking the baby from being born (without compression on the cord which would cut off baby's oxygen and blood supply).

Crowning
The phase at the end of labor when the infant's head becomes visible at the vaginal opening.

Corpus Luteum
The yellow-pigmented glandular structure that forms from the ovarian follicle following ovulation. The gland produces progesterone, which is responsible for preparing and supporting the uterine lining for implantation. Progesterone also causes the half-degree basal temperature elevation noted at midcycle during an ovulatory cycle. If the corpus luteum functions poorly, the uterine lining may not support a pregnancy. If the egg is fertilized, a corpus luteum of pregnancy forms to maintain the endometrial bed and support the implanted embryo. A deficiency in the amount of progesterone produced (or the length of time it is produced) by the corpus luteum can mean the endometrium is unable to sustain a pregnancy. This is called Luteal Phase Defect (LPD).

Cumulus Oophorus
The protective layer of cells surrounding the egg.

Cushing's Syndrome
A condition characterized by an overproduction of adrenal gland secretions. The person will suffer from high blood pressure and water retention as well as a number of other symptoms. A concurrent elevation of adrenal androgens will suppress pituitary output of LH and FSH and result in low sperm production or ovulatory failure. A woman may also develop male secondary sex characteristics, including abnormal hair growth. Cushing's Disease is another condition in which these same symptoms occur, but as the result of a pituitary tumor.

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D&C (Dilation and Curettage)
A procedure used to dilate the cervical canal and scrape out the lining and contents of the uterus. The procedure can be used to diagnose or treat the cause of abnormal bleeding and to terminate an unwanted pregnancy.

Danazol (danocrine)
A medication used to treat endometriosis. Suppresses LH and FSH production by the pituitary and causes a state of amenorrhea during which the endometrial implants waste away. Many women experience oily skin, acne, weight gain, abnormal hair growth, deepening of the voice and muscle cramps with this medication.

Demerol
A narcotic drug used to relieve pain during pregnancy.

DES (Diethylstilbestrol)
A medication prescribed in the 1950s and 1960s to women to prevent miscarriage. Male and female fetuses exposed in utero to this drug developed numerous deformities including blockage of the vas deferens, uterine abnormalities, cervical deformities, miscarriages, and unexplained infertility. DES is no longer prescribed for this indication.

DHEAS (Dihydroepiandrosterone Sulfate)
An androgen produced primarily by the adrenal gland. A high level suggests too much adrenal androgen output. See Adrenal Androgens.

Dilation
Opening up, enlargement of a tubular structure. This usually refers to the cervical dilation that occurs during labor. Dilation is measured in centimeters or, less accurately, in "fingers." "Fully dilated" means you're at 10 centimeters and are ready to push.

Donor Insemination
Artificial insemination with donor sperm. See Artificial Insemination.

Doppler
A device which employs ultrasound to listen to the fetal heart beat, examine the fetal heart for defects, and estimate placental blood flow.

Doula
A woman trained to help a couple through labor, deliver and the postpartum period.

Doxycycline
A tetracycline derivative; an antibiotic that inhibits many of the microorganisms infecting the reproductive tract. Often used for treating ureaplasma infections. Many physicians find routine treatment with this antibiotic more cost-effective than performing multiple cultures on both the husband and wife looking for infection.

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Early Labor
At this stage a women is having contractions for two hours or more, as frequent as every five minutes to every twenty minutes and her cervix is dilating up to three or four centimeters.

Eclampsia
Pregnancy-induced hypertension, a dangerous condition that may occur during pregnancy. Symptoms may include high blood pressure, swelling or "edema" and protein in the urine.

Ectopic Pregnancy
A pregnancy outside of the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube. Such a pregnancy can rarely be sustained, and often leads to decreased or complete loss of function in the affected tube. Methotrexate is now used to dissolve the pregnancy without causing major damage to the tube.

Edema
Anabnormall accumulation of water in the soft tissues of the body.

Effacement
The shortening of the cervix and thinning of its walls as it is stretched and widened by the fetus during labor.

Egg Retrieval
A procedure used to obtain eggs from ovarian follicles for use in in vitro fertilization. The procedure may be performed during laparoscopy or by using a long needle and ultrasound to locate the follicle in the ovary.

Ejaculate
The semen and sperm expelled during ejaculation.

Electronic Fetal Monitor (EFM)
An electronic device that is used to monitor the heart rate of the fetus before delivery.

Embryo
The early products of conception; the undifferentiated beginnings of a baby; the conceptus.

Embryo Transfer
Placing an egg fertilized outside the womb into a woman's uterus or fallopian tube.

Empty Sella Syndrome
A condition that occurs when spinal fluid leaks into the bony chamber (fossa) housing the pituitary gland. The fluid pressure compresses the pituitary gland and may adversely affect its ability to secrete LH and FSH and may elevate prolactin levels.

Endometrial Biopsy
A test to check for Luteal Phase Defect. A procedure during which a sample of the uterine lining is collected for microscopic analysis. The biopsy results will confirm ovulation and the proper preparation of the endometrium by estrogen and progesterone stimulation.

Endometriosis
A condition where endometrial tissue is located outside the womb. The tissue may attach itself to the reproductive organs or to other organs in the abdominal cavity. Each month the endometrial tissue inbreeds with the onset of menses. The resultant irritation causes adhesions in the abdominal cavity and in the fallopian tubes. Endometriosis may also interfere with ovulation and with the implantation of the embryo.

Endometrium
The lining of the uterus which grows and sheds in response to estrogen and progesterone stimulation; the bed of tissue designed to nourish the implanted embryo.

Endorphins
Natural narcotics manufactured in the brain to reduce sensitivity to pain and stress. May contribute to stress-related fertility problems.

Engagement
Refers to the point in labor/delivery at which the baby's head begins to descend through (engage) the pelvic canal.

Epididymis
A coiled, tubular organ attached to and lying on the testicle. Within this organ the developing sperm complete their maturation and develop their powerful swimming capabilities. The matured sperm leave the epididymis through the vas deferens.

Epidural
A common method of administering anesthesia during labor. A small amount of anesthesia is inserted into the dura a tough, fibrous, whitish membrane; the outermost of the 3 membranes covering the brain and spinal cord.

Episiotomy
An operation to enlarge the opening of the vagina with a cut. This is done during childbirth to aid in delivery or to prevent stretching of the mother's muscles and connective tissues.

Estradiol
The principal estrogen produced by the ovary. Responsible for formation of the female secondary sex characteristics such as large breasts; supports the growth of the follicle and the development of the uterine lining. At midcycle the peak estrogen level triggers the release of the LH spike from the pituitary gland. The LH spike is necessary for the release of the ovum from the follicle. Fat cells in both obese men and women can also manufacture estrogen from androgens and interfere with fertility. The blood test to monitor estradiol is E2--Rapid Assay. Women on Pergonal and other fertility drugs have routine E-2 monitoring.

Estrogen
Female sex hormone.

External Version
A manual procedure where the doctor attempts to move a breech baby into the typical head-down position for birth.

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Face Presentation
During this labor presentation the infant is head down but has its neck extended, rather than with its chin tucked.

Failure to Progress
Labor does not follow a "normal" pattern and is severely prolonged.

Fallopian Tubes
Ducts through which eggs travel to the uterus once released from the follicle. Sperm normally meet the egg in the fallopian tube, the site at which fertilization usually occurs.

False Labor
This is when you experience irregular tightening of the pregnant uterus that begins during the first three months of pregnancy. The contractions increase in time, length and strength as pregnancy continues. It may be impossible for you to differentiate from "real" labor.

Female Kallman's Syndrome
A condition characterized by infantile sexual development and an inability to smell. Since the pituitary cannot produce LH and FSH, the woman must take hormone supplements to achieve puberty, to maintain secondary sex characteristics, and to achieve fertility.

Ferning
A pattern characteristic of dried cervical mucus viewed on a slide. When the fern pattern appears, the mucus has been thinned and prepared by estrogen for the passage of sperm. If it does not fern, the mucus will be hostile to the passage of the sperm.

Fertility Treatment
Any method or procedure used to enhance fertility or increase the likelihood of pregnancy, such as ovulation induction treatment,varicocelee repair, and microsurgery to repair damaged fallopian tubes. The goal of fertility treatment is to help couples have a child.

Fertility Specialist
A physician specializing in the practice of fertility. The American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology certifies a subspecialty for OB-GYNs who receive extra training in endocrinology (the study of hormones) and infertility. Those who acquire certification are Reproductive Endocrinologists (REs).

Fertilization
The combining of the genetic material carried by sperm and egg to create an embryo. Normally occurs inside the fallopian tube (in vivo) but may also occur in a petri dish (in vitro). See also In Vitro Fertilization.

Fetal Distress
Problems with the fetus during labor. When the fetus does not get enough oxygen from the placenta and becomes "distressed", immediate delivery is sometimes required.

Fetal Scalp Electrode
A device placed under the skin of the baby's scalp (while still in the uterus) to monitor the baby's heartbeat. See Internal Monitoring.

Fetus
A term used to refer to a baby during the period of gestation between eight weeks and term.

Fibroid (Myoma or Leiomyoma)
A benign tumor of the uterine muscle and connective tissue.

Fimbria
Finger-like projections at the end of the fallopian tube nearest the ovary. When stimulated by the follicular fluid released during ovulation, the fingerlike ends grasp the ovary and coax the egg into the tube.

Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
A pituitary hormone that stimulates spermatogenesis and follicular development. In the man FSH stimulates the Sertoli cells in the testicles and supports sperm production. In the woman FSH stimulates the growth of the ovarian follicle. Elevated FSH levels are indicative of gonadal failure in both men and woman.

Follicles
Fluid-filled sacs in the ovary which contain the eggs released at ovulation. Each month an egg develops inside the ovary in a fluid filled pocket called a follicle. This follicle is one inch in size and is about ready to ovulate.

Follicular Fluid
The fluid inside the follicle that cushions and nourishes the ovum. When released during ovulation, the fluid stimulates the fimbria to grasp the ovary and coax the egg into the fallopian tube.

Follicular Phase
The pre-ovulatory portion of a woman's cycle during which a follicle grows and high levels of estrogen cause the lining of the uterus to proliferate. Normally takes between 12 and 14 days.

Fontanel
The soft spots found between the cranial bones of an infant's skull. These spots allow the baby's head to compress slightly during passage through the birth canal.

Footling Breech
Refers to a position in which the baby is upside-down and one or both feet are folded under the buttocks.

Forceps
Obstetrics Forceps are used to assist birth of the fetal head. Forceps are a two-bladed instrument that could be compared to a pair of kitchen tongs in design but have the additional feature of two blades that are easily taken apart to facilitate placement on the baby within the birth canal.

Frank Breech
The buttock of the baby are at the mother's pelvic opening. The legs are straight up in front of the body, and the feet are at the shoulders.

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Galactorrhea
A clear or milky discharge from the breasts associated with elevated prolactin.

Gamete
A reproductive cell: Sperm in men, the egg in women.

Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer (GIFT)
A technique that may be used in lieu of in vitro fertilization for women with patent (clear and open) tubes. After egg retrieval the eggs are mixed with the husband's sperm and then injected through the fimbria into the woman's fallopian tubes for in vivo fertilization.

Germ Cell
In the male the testicular cell that divides to produce the immature sperm cells; in the woman the ovarian cell that divides to form the egg (ovum). The male germ cell remains intact throughout the man's reproductive life; the woman uses up her germ cells at the rate of about one thousand per menstrual cycle, although usually only one egg matures each cycle.

Germ Cell Aplasia (Sertoli Cell Only)
An inherited condition in which the testicles have no germ cells. Since men with this condition have normal Leydig cells, they will develop secondary sex characteristics. May also be caused by large and/or prolonged exposure to toxins or radiation.

Gestation
The period of time from fertilization of the egg until birth.

Gestational Diabetes
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is high blood sugar diagnosed during pregnancy.

Gonad
The gland that makes reproductive cells and "sex" hormones: the testicles, which make sperm and testosterone, and the ovaries, which make eggs (ova) and estrogen.

Gonadotropins
Hormones which control reproductive function: Follicle Stimulating Hormone and Leutenizing Hormone.

Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GNRH)
The hormone which controls the production and release of gonadotropins. Secreted by the hypothalamus every ninety minutes or so, this hormone enables the pituitary to secrete LH and FSH, which stimulate the gonads. See FSH, LH.

Group B Strep
Short name for group B streptococci. It is an infection that affects 10-25% of all pregnant women and can be passed from the mother to the newborn during delivery.

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Hamster Test
A test of the ability of sperm to penetrate a hamster egg which has been stripped of the Zona Pellucida (outer membrane). Also called Sperm Penetration Assay (SPA).

Hemorrhage
A loss of a large amount of blood in a short period of time, either internally or externally.

Hemorrhoid
An enlarged vein in the lower rectum or anus caused by blocking in veins of the area. Straining to defecate, constipation and too much sitting can cause hemorrhoids. This condition can be quite common in pregnancy.

High Risk Pregnancy
A pregnancy where there are fetal or maternal complications that may require specific medical attention or bed rest. Pregnancies at high risk of fetal or maternal complications.

Hirsutism
The overabundance of body hair, such as a mustache or pubic hair growing upward toward the navel, found in women with excess androgens.

Host Uterus
Also called a "surrogate gestational mother." A couple's embryo is transferred to another woman who carries the pregnancy to term and returns the baby to the genetic parents immediately after birth.

Hostile Mucus
Cervical mucus that impedes the natural progress of sperm through the cervical canal.

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG)
The hormone produced in early pregnancy which keeps the corpus luteum producing progesterone. Also used via injection (Profasi) to trigger ovulation after some fertility treatments, and used in men to stimulate testosterone production.

Human Menopausal Gonadotripin (HMG -Pergonal, Humegon)
A combination of hormones FSH and LH, which is extracted from the urine of post-menopausal women. Used to induce ovulation in several fertility treatments.

Humegon (HMG)
Similar to Pergonal: the lutenizing and follicle-stimulating hormones recovered from the urine of post-menopausal women. Used to stimulate multiple ovulation in some fertility treatments.

Hydramnios
An abnormal condition during pregnancy know by an excess of amniotic fluid surrounding the fetus.

Hyperemesis
A condition marked by severe nausea ("morning sickness"), resulting in weight loss, ketosis, and fluid and electrolyte imbalance. It can lead to hospitalization if dehydration occurs.

Hyperprolactinemia
A condition in which the pituitary gland secretes too much prolactin. Prolactin can suppress LH and FSH production, reduce male sex drive, and directly suppress ovarian function.

Hyperstimulation (Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome - OHSS)
A potentially life- threatening side effect of Pergonal, Humagon or Metrodin ovulation induction. A woman's ovaries become enlarged and produce an overabundance of eggs. Blood hormone levels rise, fluid may collect in the lungs or abdominal cavity, and ovarian cyst may rupture, causing internal bleeding. Blood clots sometimes develop. Symptoms include sudden weight gain and abdominal pain. Cycles stimulated with these drugs must be carefully monitored with ultrasound scans. OHSS may be prevented by withholding the hCG injection when ultrasound monitoring indicates that too many follicles have matured.

Hyperthyroidism
Overproduction of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland. The resulting increased metabolism "burns up" estrogen too rapidly and interferes with ovulation.

Hypoestrogenic
Having lower than normal levels of estrogen.

Hypoglycemic
A less than normal amount of sugar in the blood.

Hypogonadotropic Hypopituitarism
A spectrum of diseases resulting in low pituitary gland output of LH and FSH. Men with this disorder have low sperm counts and may lose their virility; women do not ovulate and may lose their secondary sex characteristics.

Hypospermatogenesis
Low sperm production.

Hypothalamus
A part of the brain, the hormonal regulation center, located adjacent to and above the pituitary gland. In both the man and the woman this tissue secretes GnRH every ninety minutes or so. The pulsatile GnRH enables the pituitary gland to secrete LH and FSH, which stimulate the gonads. See also FSH; LH; Pituitary Gland.

Hypothyroidism
A condition in which the thyroid gland produces an insufficient amount of thyroid hormone. The resulting lowered metabolism interferes with the normal breakdown of "old" hormones and causes lethargy. Men will suffer from a lower sex drive and elevated prolactin (see Hyperprolactinemia), and women will suffer from elevated prolactin and estrogen, both of which will interfere with fertility.

Hyspadias
A congenital defect of the penis where the urethra is not at the tip of the penis, but in the shaft. This can be corrected surgically.

Hysterosalpinogram (HSG)
An x-ray of the pelvic organs in which a radio-opaque dye is injected through the cervix into the uterus and fallopian tubes. This test checks for malformations of the uterus and blockage of the fallopian tubes.

Hysteroscopy
A procedure in which the doctor checks for uterine abnormalities by inserting a fiber-optic device. Minor surgical repairs can be executed during the procedure.

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ICSI-Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection
A procedure in which a single sperm is injected into an egg.

Immature Sperm (Germinal Cell)
A sperm that has not matured and gained the ability to swim. In the presence of illness or infection such sperm may appear in the semen in large numbers.

Implantation (Embryo)
The embedding of the embryo into tissue so it can establish contact with the mother's blood supply for nourishment. Implantation usually occurs in the lining of the uterus; however, in an ectopic pregnancy it may occur elsewhere in the body.

Impotence
The inability of the man to have an erection and to ejaculate.

Incompetent Cervix
A cervix that does not function properly during pregnancy. Miscarriage or premature delivery may result.

Incontinence
The inability to urination or defecation. During pregnancy, urinary incontinence can occur as the baby becomes heavy on the bladder.

Induced Labor
When labor is started artificially by rupturing the fetal membranes or giving medications such as Prostaglandin gel and oxytocin (Pitocin®).

Infertility
The inability to conceive after a year of unprotected intercourse or the inability to carry a pregnancy to term.

Inhibin
A male feedback hormone made in the testicles to regulate FSH production by the pituitary gland.

Inhibin-F (Folliculostatin)
A female feedback hormone made in the ovary to regulate FSH production by the pituitary gland.

Internal Monitoring
A procedure that may be needed during labor. This involves the Fetal Scalp Electrode procedure, in which a device placed under the skin of the baby's scalp (while still in the uterus) to monitor the baby's heartbeat.

Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)
A micromanipulation procedure where a single sperm is injected into the egg to enable fertilization with very low sperm counts or with non-motile sperm.

Intrauterine Insemination (IUI)
A relatively "low-tech" ART(Assisted Reproductive Technology) which deposits "washed" sperm directly into the uterus, bypassing cervical mucus and depositing the sperm more closely to the fallopian tubes, where fertilization occurs. Used to bypass hostile cervical mucus and to overcome sperm count and motility problems. See Artificial Insemination.

Intubate
A procedure in which a breathing tube is put through the mouth or nose or into the throat to assist breathing or for other medical purposes.

In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)
Literally means "in glass." Fertilization takes place outside the body in a small glass dish.

IUGR
(Intrauterine growth retardation) After the birth, the baby appears smaller than the dates say he or she should be.

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Jaundice (neonatal)
A common condition in newborns, characterized by a yellow discoloring of the skin, mucous membranes, and eyes and it is caused by the immature liver's inability to process excess red blood cells.

Kallman's Syndrome
A congenital hypothalamus dysfunction which has multiple symptoms including the failure to complete puberty.

Karyotyping
A test performed to analyze chromosomes for the presence of genetic defects.

Kegel Exercises
A system of exercises in which a woman strengthens the muscles around her pelvic diaphragm and pubic area, particularly after childbirth.

Klinefelter's Syndrome
A genetic abnormality characterized by having one Y (male) and two X (female) chromosomes. May cause a fertility problem.

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Labia
The inner and outer liplike edges of the vulva (vagina) - the external female genitalia.

Labor
The time and processes that occur during childbirth from the beginning of cervical dilation to the delivery of the placenta, or after childbirth.

Lamaze
The oldest, most common technique used in childbirth preparation where relaxation, breathing techniques and informed decisions are paramount.

Laparoscope
A small telescope that can be inserted into a hole in the abdominal wall for viewing the internal organs; the instrument used to perform a laparoscopy. Used to diagnose and treat a number of fertility problems including endometriosis, abdominal adhesions, and polycystic ovaries. Also used in egg retrieval for in vitro fertilization. Examination of the pelvic region by using a laparoscope is called a laparoscopy.

Laparotomy
Major abdominal surgery where reproductive organ abnormalities can be corrected and fertility restored, such as tubal repairs and the removal of adhesions.

Leopold Maneuver
A set of four steps used in feeling the belly of a pregnant woman to find the position and location of the baby within the uterus.

Leukorrhea
Whitish mucousy vaginal discharge, common during pregnancy. If there is a lot of discharge, talk to your doctor.

Leydig Cell
The testicular cell that produces the male hormone testosterone. The Leydig cell is stimulated by LH from the pituitary gland.

Lightening
A sensation felt by many women late in pregnancy, when the baby "drops" in preparation for delivery. See also Engagement.

Lochia
A period-like discharge that flows from the vagina following childbirth.

Luteal Phase
Post-ovulatory phase of a woman's cycle. The corpus luteum produces progesterone, which cause the uterine lining to thicken to support the implantation and growth of the embryo.

Luteal Phase Defect (or deficiency) (LPD)
A condition that occurs when the uterine lining does not develop adequately because of inadequate progesterone stimulation; or because of the inability of the uterine lining to respond to progesterone stimulation. LPD may prevent embryonic implantation or cause an early abortion.

Luteinized Unruptured Follicle (LUF) Syndrome
A condition in which the follicle develops and changes into the corpus luteum without releasing the egg.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
A pituitary hormone that stimulates the gonads. In the man LH is necessary for spermatogenesis (Sertoli cell function) and for the production of testosterone (Leydig cell function). In the woman LH is necessary for the production of estrogen. When estrogen reaches a critical peak, the pituitary releases a surge of LH (the LH spike), which releases the egg from the follicle.

Luteinizing Hormone Surge (LH Surge)
The release of luteinizing hormone (LH) that causes release of a mature egg from the follicle. Ovulation test kits detect the sudden increase of LH, signaling that ovulation is about to occur (usually within 24-36 hours).

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Magnesium Sulphate
Sometimes used to stop or slow labor.

Malpresentation
The fetus is not "presenting" (referring to position in the pelvis) in the anterior (normal) position.

Maturation Arrest
A testicular condition in which at one stage of sperm production all sperm development halts throughout all testicular tubules. May result in oligospermia or azozoospermia.

Meconium
The material that collects in the intestines of a fetus and is normally discharged shortly after birth.

Meiosis
The cell division, peculiar to reproductive cells, which allows genetic material to divide in half. Each new cell will contain twenty-three chromosomes. The spermatids (immature sperm) and ova (eggs) each contain twenty-three chromosomes, so when they combine (fertilize), the baby will have a normal complement of forty-six.

Menorrhagia
Heavy or prolonged menstrual flow.

Metrodin (Pure Follicle Stimulating Hormone)
An injectable form of Follicle Stimulating Hormone used to stimulate ovulation.

Metrorrhagia
Menstrual spotting during the middle of the cycle.

Midwife
A person who assists the mother during childbirth. A DEM (Direct Entry Midwife) assists homebirths while a CPM (Certified Professional Midwife) assists births that take place in the hospital or birthing center.

Miscarriage
Spontaneous loss of an embryo or fetus from the womb. See Abortion.

Mitosis
The division of a cell into two identical cells in which all forty-six human chromosomes are duplicated; the first division of the germ cell.

Mittleschmerz
The discomfort felt on one side of the lower abdomen at the time of ovulation.

Molding
A natural process by which a baby's head is shaped during labor as it is squeezed into the birth canal by the forces of labor. This molding will not be permanent.

Mucous Plug
A collection of thick mucous in the cervix of the uterus, often released before labor begins.

Mycoplasma
See Ureaplasma.

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Neonatal
Referring to the first four weeks of life of a newborn.

Neonatologist
A specialist who cares for newborns.

NICU
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

Non-Stress Test
A noninvasive evaluation of the response of the heart rate of a fetus to natural contractions or to an increase in fetal activity.

Nubain
Artificial pain killer commonly used in labor and delivery.

Obstetrician
Doctor specializing in care of women during pregnancy, labor and delivery.

Oligmenorrhea
Infrequent menstrual periods.

Oligohydramnios
A condition which involves having too little amniotic fluid.

Oligospermia
Having few sperm.

Ovarian Failure
The failure of the ovary to respond to FSH stimulation from the pituitary because of damage to or malformation of the ovary. Diagnosed by elevated FSH in the blood.

Ovarian Cyst
A fluid-filled sac inside the ovary. An ovarian cyst may be found in conjunction with ovulation disorders, tumors of the ovary, and endometriosis. See also Chocolate Cyst.

Ovulation Induction
Medical treatment performed to initiate ovulation. See also Clomiphene Citrate, Humegon, Pergonal.

Ovulation
The release of the egg (ovum) from the ovarian follicle.

Ovulatory Failure (Anovulation)
The failure to ovulate.

Ovum
The egg; the reproductive cell from the ovary; the female gamete; the sex cell that contains the woman's genetic information.

Oxytocin
A hormone produced by the pituitary gland that starts uterine contractions in bringing on or increasing labor and release of milk from the breast. It also refers to a drug that is like the hormone.

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Panbypopituitarism
Complete pituitary gland failure.

Parlodel
See Bromocriptine.

Patent
The condition of being open, as with tubes that form part of the reproductive organs.

Pelvic Floor
The muscles and tissues surrounding the bottom of the pelvis.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
An infection of the pelvic organs that causes severe illness, high fever, and extreme pain. PID may lead to tubal blockage and pelvic adhesions.

Pergonal (HMG)
A medication used to replace the pituitary hormones LH and FSH. May be used to induce ovulation in women who do not respond to clomiphene citrate. Most frequently used with women who do not normally produce estrogen because of a pituitary gland or hypothalamic malfunction. May also be used with men to stimulate sperm production.

Perineum
The part of the body between the inner thighs on either side, with the buttocks to the rear and the sex organs at the front.

Pitocin
Synthetic oxytocin, a uterus stimulating drug.

Pituitary Gland
The master gland; the gland that is stimulated by the hypothalamus and controls all hormonal functions. Located at the base of the brain just below the hypothalamus, this gland controls many major hormonal factories throughout the body including the gonads, the adrenal glands, and the thyroid gland.

Placenta
The embryonic tissue that invades the uterine wall and provides a mechanism for exchanging the baby's waste products for the mother's nutrients and oxygen. The baby is connected to the placenta by the umbilical cord.

Placenta Previa
Usually discovered in late pregnancy. The placenta lies low in the uterus, causing the opening of the uterus to be partially or completely covered.

Polar Body
The discarded genetic material resulting from female germ cell division. See Meiosis.

Polycystic Ovaries (PCO or "Stein-Leventhal Syndrome")
A condition found in women who don't ovulate, characterized by excessive production of androgens (male sex hormones) and the presence of cysts in the ovaries. Though PCO can be without symptoms, some include excessive weight gain, acne and excessive hair growth.

Post Coital Test (PCT)
A microscopic examination of the cervical mucus best performed twelve or more hours after intercourse to determine compatibility between the woman's mucus and the man's semen; a test used to detect sperm-mucus interaction problems, the presence of sperm antibodies, and the quality of the cervical mucus.

Posterior
This presentation describes the baby's face-up position during delivery. Normal presentation is anterior (face down). Posterior deliveries can cause back pain during labor.

Post testicular System
The ducts that store and deliver the sperm to the opening of the penis; also includes the glands that produce seminal fluids.

Postpartum
The period of time right after Childbirth.

Post Term
Any pregnancy that lasts more than 42 weeks.

Preeclampsia
A complication of pregnancy characterized by high blood pressure, swelling or "edema" and protein in your urine (proteinuria). It usually occurs in the second half of pregnancy and can be mild or severe.

Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH)
A condition that occurs during pregnancy in which the patient has higher blood pressure than the normal standard, placing the mother and baby at risk.

Premature Ovarian Failure
A condition where the ovary runs out of follicles before the normal age associated with menopause.

Preterm Labor
Labor that starts before the 37th week of pregnancy. Since most pregnancies last between 37 and 42 weeks, preterm labor leading to preterm delivery, may put your baby at risk for health problems.

Pretesticular System
The male hormonal system responsible for stimulating sperm production and the development of male secondary sex characteristics.

Progesterone
The hormone produced by the corpus luteum during the second half of a woman's cycle. It thickens the lining of the uterus to prepare it to accept implantation of a fertilized egg.

Progesterone Withdrawal
A diagnostic procedure used to analyze menstrual irregularity and amenorrhea; uterine "bleeding" that occurs within two weeks after taking progesterone; a procedure used to demonstrate the presence or absence of estrogen and to demonstrate the ability of the uterus and reproductive tract to "bleed." Prior to ovulation induction therapy, progesterone withdrawal may be used to induce a menstrual period.

Prolactin
The hormone that stimulates the production of milk in breastfeeding women. Excessive prolactin levels when not breastfeeding may result in infertility.

PROM
The term stands for premature rupture of membranes and signifies that a woman's water has broken early.

Prostaglandins
Hormone-like substances found in men and women. It is hypothesized that prostaglandins secreted by active, young endometrial implants may interfere with the reproductive organs by causing muscular contractions or spasms. Also, prostaglandins not "washed" from sperm can cause severe cramping during IUI procedures.

Prostaglandin gel or cream
Medication used to ripen the cervix before labor is induced.

Prostate Gland
A gland in the male reproductive system that produces a portion of the semen, including a chemical that liquefies the coagulated semen twenty minutes to one hour after entering the vagina.

Pubic Symphysis
The slightly movable joint of the front of the pelvis.

PUBS
Percutaneous umbilical blood sampling. A needle is inserted into the mother's abdominal wall and through the uterus as well as the umbilical cord at the base of the placenta. Blood is drawn for diagnostic purpose.

Prudental Block
A procedure that gives regional pain relief in the perineum area during birth and is also used when repairing an episiotomy.

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Resistant Ovary
An ovary that cannot respond to the follicle-stimulating message sent by FSH. Primitive germ cells will be present in the ovary; however, they will not respond to FSH stimulation.

Retrograde Ejaculation
A male fertility problem that allows the sperm to travel into the bladder instead of out the opening of the penis due to a failure in the sphincter muscle at the base of the bladder.

RH Factor
A substance (antigen) in the red blood cells of most people. An Rh+ fetus may be exposed to antibodies to the factor made in the Rh-mother's blood.

Ruptured Membranes
Usually referred to as "breaking of the water bag," this is when the fluid-filled sac that surrounds the baby breaks.

Salpingectomy
Surgical removal of the fallopian tube.

Salpingolysis
Surgery performed to remove adhesions that restrict the movement and function of reproductive organs.

Salpingostomy/Fimbrioplasty
Surgical repair made to the fallopian tubes; a procedure used to open the fimbria.

Scrotum
The bag of skin and thin muscle surrounding the man's testicles.

Secondary Infertility
The inability of a couple to achieve a second pregnancy. This strict medical definition includes couples for whom the pregnancy did not go to term. The common vernacular, however, refers to a couple which has one biological child but is unable to conceive another.

Secondary Sex Characteristics
The physical qualities that distinguish man and woman, such as beard, large breasts, and deep voice. Formed under the stimulation of the sex hormones (testosterone or estrogen), these characteristics also identify those people who have gone through puberty (sexual maturity).

Semen Viscosity
The liquid flow or consistency of the semen.

Semen Analysis
A laboratory test used to assess semen quality: sperm quantity, concentration, morphology (form), and motility. In addition, it measures semen (fluid) volume and whether or not white blood cells are present, indicating an infection.

Semen
The fluid portion of the ejaculate consisting of secretions from the seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and several other glands in the male reproductive tract. The semen provides nourishment and protection for the sperm and a medium in which the sperm can travel to the woman's vagina. Semen may also refer to the entire ejaculate, including the sperm.

Seminal Vesicles
Glands in the male reproductive system which produce much of the semen volume, including fructose (sugar) for nourishing the sperm and a chemical that causes the semen to coagulate on entering the vagina.

Seminiferous Tubes
The testicular tubules in which the sperm mature and move toward the epididymis.

Septate Uterus
A uterus divided into right and left halves by a wall of tissue (septum). Women with a septate uterus have an increased chance of early pregnancy loss.

Serophene
Brand name for clomiphene citrate.

Sertoli (Nurse) Cell
A testicular cell responsible for nurturing the spermatids (immature sperm). Secretes inhibin, a feedback hormone, which regulates FSH production by the pituitary gland. When stimulated by FSH, the Sertoli cell initiates spermatogenesis .

Sheehan's Syndrome
A condition caused by profuse hemorrhage at the time of delivery. The severe blood loss shocks the pituitary gland, which dies and becomes nonfunctional.

Shoulder Dystocial
During delivery, the infant's shoulder gets caught on the mother's pubic bone.

Silver Nitrate
A medication that is used to prevent serious problems in the newborn's eyes in the event that the mother has gonorrhea. It is generally administered in both eyes within the first hour of life.

Sonogram (Ultrasound)
Use of high-frequency sound waves for creating an image of internal body parts. Used to detect and count follicle growth (and disappearance) in many fertility treatments. Also used to detect and monitor pregnancy.

Speculum
A tool used to open the vagina slightly wider so that the cervix can be seen more easily.

Sperm
The microscopic cell that carries the male's genetic information to the female's egg; the male reproductive cell; the male gamete.

Sperm Agglutination
Sperm clumping caused by antibody reactions or by infection.

Spermatogenesis
Sperm production in the testicles.

Sperm Bank
A place where sperm are kept frozen in liquid nitrogen for later use in artificial insemination.

Sperm Count
The number of sperm in ejaculate. Also called sperm concentration and given as the number of sperm per milliliter.

Sperm Maturation
A process during which the sperm grow and gain their ability to swim. Sperm take about ninety days to reach maturity.

Sperm Morphology
A semen analysis factor that indicates the number or percentage of sperm in the sample that appear to have been formed normally. Abnormal morphology includes sperm with kinked, doubled, or coiled tails. The higher the percentage of misshapen sperm, the less likely fertilization can take place.

Sperm Motility
The ability of sperm to swim. Poor motility means the sperm have a difficult time swimming toward their goal---the egg.

Sperm Penetration
The ability of the sperm to penetrate the egg so it can deposit the genetic material during fertilization.

Spinnbarkeit
The stretchability of cervical mucus; the stringy quality that occurs at midcycle under the influence of estrogen. See also Post Coital Test.

Split Ejaculate
A method used to concentrate the sperm for insemination; separating the semen into two portions: the first portion of the ejaculate, which is rich in sperm, and the second portion, which contains mostly seminal fluid.

Stadol
A narcotic pain used as an aid to anesthesia during labor and delivery.

Station
This describes the location of the baby on its descent down the birth canal. "Zero station" means he hasn't yet descended, while "fully engaged" means he is ready to be born.

Stein-Leventhal Disease
Another name for Polycystic Ovaries.

Sterility
An irreversible condition that prevents conception.

Stillbirth
The death of a fetus between the twentieth week of gestation and birth.

Stress testThis test is often used to test the heart,and the lungs, and the health of the fetus in pregnant women.

Superovulation
Stimulation of multiple ovulation with fertility drugs; also known as controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH).

Surrogate Mother
A woman who is artificially inseminated and carries to term a baby which will be raised by its genetic father and his partner.

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Teratogens
Agents such as drugs, chemicals and infections that a mother is exposed to during pregnancy that block the normal growth of the fetus, causing one more developmental abnormalities in the fetus.

Terbutaline
A drug sometimes used in pregnancy to slow or stop labor because of its relaxant effect on smooth muscle. The uterus is a smooth muscle. See Brethine.

Term
Referring to a 40 week pregnancy ("full term," "preterm" and "post term").

Testicular Biopsy
A minor surgical procedure used to take a small sample of testicular tissue for microscopic examination; a test used to diagnose male fertility problems when no other means is available (this is because the biopsy procedure itself may cause testicular damage).

Testicular Stress Pattern
A semen analysis result showing depressed sperm production, poor sperm motility, and poor sperm morphology. The pattern is consistent with secondary testicular failure or illness.

Testicular Enzyme Defect
A congenital enzyme defect that prevents the testes from responding to hormonal stimulation. Will result in oligospermia or azozoospermia.

Testicular Feminization
An enzymatic defect that prevents a man from responding to the male hormone testosterone. The man will look like a woman, but karyotyping will reveal a normal XY male chromosome pattern, and testosterone levels will be in the normal male range.

Testicular Failure
Primary: A congenital, developmental, or genetic error resulting in a testicular malformation that prevents sperm production.
Secondary: Acquired testicular damage, for example, from drugs, prolonged exposure to toxic substances, or avaricocelee.

Testosterone
The male hormone responsible for the formation of secondary sex characteristics and for supporting the sex drive. Testosterone is also necessary for spermatogenesis.

Thyroid Gland
The endocrine gland in the front of the neck that produces thyroid hormones to regulate the body's metabolism.

Timing Contractions
To time your contradictions, use a stopwatch or the second hand on a clock. Since contractions are usually measured from the beginning of one until the beginning of the next, take note of the duration of each contraction.

Torsion
The twisting of the testis inside the scrotum. Besides causing extreme pain and swelling, the rotation twists off the blood supply and causes severe damage to the testicle. Torsion of the ovary may also occur in a woman suffering from hyperstimulation, a complication of ovulation induction treatment.

Toxemia
Pregnancy-induced hypertension, a dangerous condition that may occur during pregnancy. See Eclampsia and PIH.

Toxoplasmosis
A protozoal infection acquired from coming in contact with infected cat feces, garden soil or more rarely, raw, infected meat. Although this is a mild infection in healthy adults, it can cause serious problems for the fetus. Toxoplasma can cross the placenta and cause miscarriage, compromised fetal growth, or other problems.

Transition
This is the phase after active labor when the cervix finishes dilating to 10 centimeters. Contractions are the strongest and closest together during this phase (which is also the shortest phase).

Transverse
Usually referring to the position of the fetus within the uterus. Sometimes babies will become positioned horizontally across the uterus, instead of the vertical position with the head or buttocks pointing toward the cervix. Usually the fetus will orient himself properly before labor. If the baby cannot be properly oriented, a C-section may be needed.

Trimester
Trimesters divide pregnancy into three 13-week periods. The development and potential problems of pregnancy and the fetus vary by trimester.

Tubocornual Anastomosis
Surgery performed to remove a blocked portion of the fallopian tube and to reconnect the tube to the uterus. Tubouterine implantation may also be performed to remove fallopian tube blockage near the uterus and reimplant the tube in the uterus.

Tubotubal Anastomosis
Surgery performed to remove a diseased portion of the fallopian tube and reconnect the two ends; sterilization reversal.

Turner's Syndrome
The most common genetic defect contributing to female fertility problems. The ovaries fail to form and appear as slender threads of atrophic ovarian tissue, referred to as streak ovaries. Karyotyping will reveal that this woman has only one female (X) chromosome instead of two.

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Ultrasound
See Sonogram

Umbilical Cord
Two arteries and one vein encased in a gelatinous tube leading from the baby to the placenta. Used to exchange nutrients and oxygen from the mother for waste products from the baby.

Undescended Testicles (Cryptorchidism)
The failure of the testicles to descend from the abdominal cavity into the scrotum by one year of age. If not repaired by age six, may result in permanent fertility loss.

Unicornate Uterus
An abnormality in which the uterus is "one sided" and smaller than usual.

Ureaplasma (Mycoplasma)
An infection that may cause the formation of sperm antibodies and an inflammation of the uterine lining, either of which may interfere with implantation of the embryo.

Urethra
The tube that allows urine to pass between the bladder and the outside of the body. In the man this tube also carries semen from the area of the prostate to the outside.

Urologist
A physician specializing in the genitourinary tract.

Uterus
The hollow, muscular organ that houses and nourishes the fetus during pregnancy.

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Vacuum Extractor
The application of a suction cup to the head for helping deliver the infant. This technique performs a similar function as forceps and helps the baby to descend through the birth canal. An instrument that attaches to the baby's head and helps guide it out of the birth canal during delivery.

Vagina
The part of the female genitals that forms a canal from the opening through the passageway to the cervix.

Vaginitis
Yeast, bacterial vaginosis, or trichomonas infections of the vagina. Frequent vaginitis may indicate the presence of pelvic adhesions and tubal blockage from other infections, such as chlamydia. Vaginitis may interfere with sperm penetration of the cervical mucus, and the symptoms may even interfere with the ability and desire to have intercourse.

Varicocele
A dilation of the veins that carry blood out of the scrotum. The resulting swollen vessels surrounding the testicles create a pool of stagnant blood, which elevates the scrotal temperature. A major cause of male infertility.

Vas Deferens
One of the tubes through which the sperm move from the testicles (epididymis) toward the seminal vesicles and prostate gland. These tubes are severed during a vasectomy performed for birth control.

Vasectomy
The accidental or elective surgical separation of the vasa deferential a procedure used for birth control.

VBAC
Vaginal birth after cesarean.

Venereal Disease
Any infection that can be sexually transmitted, such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, ureaplasma, and syphilis. Many of these diseases will interfere with fertility and some will cause severe illness. See also PID.

Vernix
A greyish-white cheeselike substance that coats and protects the baby's skin in utero.

Vulva
The outer genitals of a woman. This includes the fleshy skin folds (labia). The opening of the vagina, and the various glands.

X Chromosome
The congenital, developmental, or genetic information in the cell that transmits the information necessary to make a female. All eggs contain one X chromosome, and half of all sperm carry an X chromosome. When two X chromosomes combine, the baby will be a girl.

Y Chromosome
The genetic material that transmits the information necessary to make a male. The Y chromosome can be found in one-half of the man's sperm cells. When an X and a Y chromosome combine, the baby will be a boy.

Zygote
A fertilized egg which has not yet divided.

Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer (ZIFT)
An ART in which eggs are removed from a woman's ovaries, fertilized with the man's sperm in a lab dish, and the resulting Zygotes are transferred into the woman's fallopian tubes during a minor surgical procedure.

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Portions of this document were compiled by Theresa Venet Grant, Public Information Director of the InterNational Council on Infertility Information Dissemination (INCIID).
Other portions are from "Miracle Babies and Other Happy Endings," by Dr. Mark Perloe & Gail Christie.

InterNational Council on Infertility Information Dissemination (INCIID)
P.O. Box 6836
Arlington, Virginia 22206
NPH 12/30/96

Not all exercises or diets are suitable for everyone. Before you begin this program, you should have permission from your doctor to participate in vigorous exercise and change of diet. If you feel discomfort or pain when you exercise, do not continue. The instructions and advice presented are in no way intended as a substitute for medical counseling. The creators, producers, participants and distributors of this site disclaim any liability or loss in connection with the exercise and advice provided here.

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